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Jack Dorsey

When he was in his late 20s, Jack Dorsey co-founded Twitter, the ground breaking social communications platform that surpassed 200 million users by its fifth birthday. Despite Stephen Lam/REUTERS/NewsCom Dorsey may have a bold tattoo on his forearm and a reputation as an intense leader, but he still begins each day with a text to his mother. In his role as CEO at Square, he has attempted to change his management style, striving to comco-founding the company and serving as the municate more clearly with employees and initial CEO in Twitter's early years of explosive growth, Dorsey was forced out of daily operations and ultimately left the company after only a few years. He describes the move to depose him as feeling like a punch in the gut. After a few years, he recovered from the emotional bruise to his ego and returned to At the core of his being, he really wants to make the world a better place. hosting a “town square” meeting each Friday to share information. Although even with this improvement, there is still evidence of low job satisfaction at Square due to its pressure-filled environment. These persistent attitudes may be related to real the company to oversee design and product development initiatives, but again he saw his role diminished and eventually turned his attention to pursuits outside the company. Opinions differ about Dorsey's rocky experience at Twitter. Dorsey himself admitted he wasn't a good manager in his original experience as an executive, but word of employee dissatisfaction also emerged during his second stint. Employees were said to coniplain about the difficulties of working with Dorsey and the stress caused by his frequent changes in direction regarding product features. Others, including Dorsey, assert that his most recent transition out of operations at Twitter had more to do with his commitment to Square, Inc., and his enthusiasm about its prospects. Square, the company Dorsey co-founded in 2009, produces the small card-swiping device that can be connected to a smartphone to collect payments from customers. issues with Dorsey's leadership style or perhaps some employees' perceptions that his perfectionism and attention to detail don't fit their idea of what makes a good boss. Despite his faults, Dorsey's supporters say that all of his innovations are aimed at contributing to a more humane and efficient society. A mentor of his, Ray Chambers, is the UN Secretary-General's special envoy for malaria. Said Chambers of Dorsey, “At the core of his being, he really wants to make the world a better place.” Peter Fenton, an investor in Twitter, said of him, “We dream about backing people who have that kind of character-purity, authenticity, but just deep optimism.” Most likely Dorsey is neither a “bad boy” nor a “bad boss,” but like many young, idealistic innovators who are thrust into leadership roles by their success, he is still learning lessons about himself as well as about organizational leadership.
As the example of Jack Dorsey makes clear, leaders have a significant influence on the way that other members of the organization experience their work. The current experience of an individual is a state of being. As used in this chapter, states are dynamic conditions of a person evident in what he or she thinks, feels, or acts. Factors that influence these states include the attributes of organizational members themselves, their interactions with others, and the organization's culture and structures. Figure 4.1 includes a subset of the components from the more comprehensive figure introduced in chapter 1. In this chapter, the emphasis of the figure is on a set of key states in the outer ring of the circle that lie below surface characteristics and are influenced by a person's stable attributes, which are described in the previous chapter. Although states are not directly visible, they often show themselves through words, expressions, and behaviours. What is not illustrated is that these states are also shaped by interpersonal and organizational influences. This will become clear in this chapter and discussed in more detail in following chapters. The states of individuals we will consider in this chapter are ethics, attitudes and commitments, perceptions, and emotions. Given their importance to OB, we discuss motivation, decision making, and self-leadership separately in following chapters.


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